Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a plant of the Piperaceae family, cultivated for its fruits, which are then dried to be used as spices. The same fruit, through different processing procedures, is used to produce white pepper, black pepper and green pepper.
The plant is native to southern India and is cultivated extensively both in India and in tropical countries. The ripe fruit looks like a dark red berry, has a diameter of about five millimeters and contains only one seed.
The Cinchona calisaya, or China calisaia, is an arboreal plant of the genus Cinchona, widespread originally in the Andes and known for use in the pharmacopoeia of the alkaloids present in the cortex. That of C. calisaya was known as Peruvian bark and was used until the early decades of the twentieth century for the extraction of quinine, a substance used in the prevention of malaria.
Cloves are called the dried still-closed buds of the "Eugenia caryophyllata", a tree native to the Moluccas (Indonesia), but nowadays cultivated in many tropical areas: Antilles, East Africa, China and Zanzibar, a small island in the Indian Ocean, which is the world's biggest producer of this spice.